LEI 9720 DE 1998 PDF
During , the PMR in children under 5 years was fold higher in rural areas Lei Miao, . More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – pmid More than 98% of pneumonia deaths occurred in 68 countries where .. ; (): – doi: /S(10) China has seen the largest human migration in history, and the country’s rapid urbanisation has important The growing disease burden in urban areas attributable to nutrition and lifestyle choices is a major ;– in Chinese. [PubMed]. Lin YJ, Lei RY, Luo YX, et al. Mar 27; ( )
|Published (Last):||11 September 2015|
|PDF File Size:||10.86 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||12.20 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Assessment of causes of death Doctors from the township hospitals or community health service centers did household surveys for each death in their responsible areas, described the symptoms before death in details on the child death registration card, and assessed the causes of death.
Open in a separate window. These were both higher than that of childhood in the same areas. Pneumonia is a preventable and treatable disease. Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by China’s urban area expansion from to The area of China’s largest cities was estimated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and 970 Thematic Mapper Plus imagery acquired in, and The proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths decreased from Quality control To ensure the accuracy of the data reported, a series le quality controls were conducted regularly and 7920 at all monitoring levels, including at the township- county- municipal- provincial- and national-level.
China Statistics Press; Minimisation of these adverse effects, and indeed maximisation of the benefits, will require development of key infrastructure, improved awareness among policy re of the health risks associated with urbanisation, and innovative policies on the part of urban planners and regulators to ensure safe and healthy urban life in China. Little awareness of immunisation among migrant parents, the costs associated with inoculation, 2627 frequent job-related changes of residence, 28 and births that violate the one-child policy have been cited as important factors driving low immunisation coverage in their children.
Finally, urbanisation has connected previously isolated locations leii rural-to-urban migration and short-term travel for commerce and recreation, se implications for the spread of communicable infections across the country.
Fortunately, the Chinese government has been aware of the regional health care inequality. Interventions to address deaths from childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea equitably: Although a dichotomous rural—urban classification has been widely used in China and elsewhere, we discuss work that has attempted to classify areas along a range of so-called urbanicity by use of metrics that capture key aspects of the process of urbanisation.
Urbanisation offers opportunities for improvements in population health in China such as access to improved health care and basic infrastructure and substantial health risks including air pollution, occupational and traffic hazards, and the risks conferred by changing diets and activity. Much progress has been made towards closing the urban-rural gap in coverage.
To strengthen immunisation programmes to reach this population is now a high priority for China’s health policy makers. The system records the residential location of every citizen and divides registered residents into agricultural and non-agricultural groups.
Mortality due to child pneumonia is strongly associated with malnutrition, poverty and lack of access to quality health care. However, most cases were diagnosed in the healthcare facilities confirmed by auxiliary examinations i. However, urbanisation will continue to increase population exposure to major risk factors for disease, especially those that relate to the challenging environmental and social conditions eg, environmental pollution and physical inactivity that dominate China’s large cities.
He and colleagues’ study 33 in a geographically and socially isolated ethnic minority group in southwest China provided early evidence of the effect of urbanisation on chronic disease; age-related increases in blood pressure were greater in individuals who had moved to urban areas than in those who remained in rural villages.
Urbanisation and health in China
Accessed 1 November In 7920, the World Health Assembly passed a resolution recognizing 198 role of 920 as the leading cause of deaths in children, setting out the goal of reducing pneumonia deaths as a global health priority [ 7 ]. Duringthe PMR in children under 5 years was 4. PMR A and the proportion of pneumonia deaths to total deaths B among children under 5 in China during — Other researchers could obtain the data by contacting Prof. John Wiley and Sons Press; Environmental Resource discovery eg, mining find.
If a child got diagnoses in healthcare facilities, the causes of death were referred to those diagnoses, usually confirmed by X-ray and other auxiliary examinations. Epidemiology Principles and Methods1st ed Chengdu: China health Statistical Yearbook; Road-traffic deaths in China, — Acknowledgments We thank the China Medical Board for facilitating the manuscript.
International handbook of population aging. Ramesh M, Wu X. The success 198 behavioural interventions to reduce obesity and hypertension-related chronic disease have been restricted, and structural interventions are necessary—eg, urban planning to promote active lifestyles and agricultural policies that promote healthy diets.
Population aging in China. The impact of urbanization and delayed childbearing on population-growth and aging in China.
Urbanisation and health in China
In a country changing as rapidly as China, frequently updated urbanisation data are crucial to the country’s future. More details about U5CMSS and surveillance subjects have been described in the previous publications [ 11 — 13 ]. Duan C, Zhou F.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Aug 5. A Promise Renewed progress report When separated the data into neonates and 1- to le children, the RRs also decreased with time, from 3.
Systematic urban-mapping programmes, done with standardised protocols, would build capacity for effective research, urban planning, and policy making. Ministry of Health communique: Health benefits will probably continue to accrue to urban populations, who have better access to health services and education and higher incomes than do their rural counterparts.
To switch official residency to non-agricultural hukou remains difficult. Environmental Administrative displacement eg, Three Gorges Dam.