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The circuit utilises the fact that a DC motor will not operate off an AC supply, and that, further- more, has a fairly high impedance if the frequency of the AC voltage is high enough. Performance The quality of the waveforms can be judged from the oscilloscope photographs.

This is gated on and off by Tl, which is driven by a 50 Hz signal. In most cases ekektor value of 1 k should prove sufficient.

The output level may be varied from zero to about 5 V by means of P3. The transformer voltage thus needs to be at least 7 V to give an 8.

Squarewave oscillator Temperature -com pen sated Although a higher output frequency is possible, there is a corre- sponding deterioration in the waveform. At elekhor belo w the zener voltage the device draws elekotr little current. The supply basically consists of an amplifier with a gain of 2, comprising a op-amp and an emitter follower, T2, to boost the output current capability.

In many cases the breakdown voltage of a zener diode is printed, fairly clearly, on the case. The anode of D1 is simply connected to one of the low voltage secondaries of the oscilloscope mains transformer. The in- 62 verting input of ICl is thus at zero volts while the non -inverting input is held positive by R1 and R2.


Full text of “Elektor – Circuits”

elekfor The negative supply functions in a similar manner. Unfortunately, some manufac- turers merely print an indecipherable code, which has to be looked up in the relevant data book in order to find the zener parameters. As the gate voltage of the FETs must always be negative the output of this oscil- lator swings bet ween ” 2 and – 6 V.

With a supply volt- age of 15 V R2 is thus ft these are nearest preferred resistors to actual values. Sawtooth-CCO 6 15V This sawtooth waveform generator which is built round a current controlled oscillator is dis- tinguished by its large sweep range.

Elektor – 301 Circuits.pdf

An input signal of sufficient amplitude to over- Figure 1. Power for the circuit is provided by a trans- former, bridge rectifier and 5 V 1C regulator. The output eletkor the crystal elsktor is fed to PI, which functions as a sensitivity control.

A LED is mounted in a suitable spot on elekttor dashboard, and is extinguished as soon the lamp 87 concerned ceases working. Because the is a little fussy about the wave- form and amplitude of Us input signal, the input stage of this design is a limiter-amplifier com- paratorThis stage will process a signal of any shape, that has an amplitude of at least 50 mV, into a form suitable for feeding to the 41 5 L The input of this stage is protected by diodes against voltages up to V p-p.

The will now deliver a DC output voltage corresponding to the frequency of the input sig- nal.


Elektor – Circuits

The voltage dropped across the LED causes a constant current elsktor flow through the emitter resistor of the TUP and a corre- sponding constant collector current, which flows into the base of the NPN transistor under test. The aim of this project was to produce a simple, cost-effective, general purpose audio generator, which was easy to build and use.

FSK modem 30 trend meter. To overcome this problem a ‘pulse stretcher 1 circuit may be used, see figure 2.

A suggested printed circuit board design and component layout for the cir- cuit of figure 2. Photos, The three output waveforms pro- duced by the function generator. Most have only a single tape socket, with facili- ties for making a recording onto one tape deck and monitoring that recording, and have no pro- vision for a second tape deck.

The circuit is based on the wellknown 1C regulator. There are two possi- bilities: This produces a train of short pulses from the squarewave input signal and these 310 fed to an audio amplifier comprising T1 and T2.

On the other hand, coal fires are difficult to light, slow in producing heat, and also extremely messy to dean out. One point to note when using this circuit is that the supply voltage must be at least 2 V greater than the output voltage of the circuit.